Long lasting insecticide treated net is the most control measure of malaria. The world Health Organization (WHO) and it’s partners under “Roll Back malaria” (RBM) movement formed in (1998) are working to strengthen countries Health system believing that in the next 10 years, death from malaria would be prevented.
Many people are affected by malaria attack as a result of poor drainage system overgrow-weeds and grasses around their surroundings therefore people should adopt the method of spraying the rooms with insecticides every night and the use of insecticide treated Nets, screening of windows and doors should be encouraged, larvicides and biological control with larviorous fished may be useful as well.
Attitude of mother in the utilization of long lasting insecticide treated net increase the rate of malaria which is a major health problem and indeed a cause and consequence of under development in Nigeria.
Children under five years up to 3-4 episodes a year while 50% of adults have the illness at least once a year leading to loss of up to 3000,000 lives annually. In response to this present day insidious genocide, 44 African heads of states and governments meet during the Roll Back Summit in year 2000 to set up modalities for malaria control.
The principal mode of spread of malaria bite is from infected female anopheles mosquito. The major factors are anopheles arabiensis. Anophele males occurs in the mangrove/coastal areas of Nigeria incidence in all year round but it occurs most during the wet/rainy season, modes of transmission are from blood transmission and mother to child transmission.
Mosquitoes breed in stagnant water, gutters, ponds, bushes, collection of water in tins and cans around dwelling places, it feed on blood cells, multipliers and destroy them.
Malaria in association with other diseases contributes a very serious problem in Nigeria. Malaria is responsible for 60% patients visit to health facilities, 30% childhood death, 25% of death of children under 1 year and 11% of maternal death. Combating malaria has been state as a high priority goal. The UN has also declared 2001-2010 the “decade to role malaria” in developing countries particularly in Africa.
As earlier stated, people suffer from malaria infection when a female anopheles mosquito bite an infected individual and ingest the human infected blood into its system. This undergoes certain of development in the mosquito resulting in the production of sporozoites. A bite from an infected mosquito resulting in the production of sporozoites which circulates In the blood stream, entering the blood cells, the liver cells and growing into erythrocytic schizonts (pre erythrocytes phase) of an asexual reproduction.
The schizonts now grow mature to the liberate merozoites which later invade the red cell, (erythrocytic phase) and development into trophozoites. Some asexual are developed into occytes which undergo mitotic division producing large number of sporozoites which are injected into man when mosquito bites and the cycle continues.
Some clinical features of malaria are high fever, accompanied by rigor, headache, profuse sweating nauseas with or without vomiting, general malaise, weakness, joint pains and loss of appetite. The above signs and symptoms are experienced during the erythrocytic phase in which the parasites multiply and invade the red cells.